Malcolm X Response
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Discuss how hospitals and healthcare got their Christian roots.
From the perspective of an industry professional in a leadership position, the student is to develop a hypothetical annual budget for a university/college or professional sport team of their choice. Through research, the student should familiarize themselves with as many financial responsibilities of the organization as they can, including sources of revenue, typical expenses, employment practices and benefits packages, daily operating practices, financial planning practices, and more.
Directions: The student is to develop an annual budget for a sport organization that he/she would be interested in working for. The budget should be developed in Microsoft Excel and should include, but not be limited to, the following:
a. Types of revenues and amounts
b. Types of expenses and amounts
c. Financing details (i.e. loans, borrowing, etc…)
d. Payroll and benefits
e. Liability and Insurance Coverage
h. Inventory and Production
i. Other elements common to the organization provided.
The student is encouraged to research budgets before beginning the project. Rather than re-inventing the wheel, the student should research in person or through the Internet search for budgets from organizations of a similar size and capacity.
Please visit the following link: http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/schools/finances (链接到外部网站。), which lists financial information for NCAA Division I schools. Please click on the institution’s name and you can choose more in-depth revenue and expense information. This may be very helpful to you as you are looking to utilize revenue and expense figures that may be more in line with the actual budget lines.
You should also include a brief narrative that explains why you chose your sport organization and detail any key information that you would like to highlight about the budget that you created. Please include a cover page and submit the assignment as a single PDF document.
What all tests have in common is that we need to formulate a null and alternative hypothesis before we analyze any data. The alternative hypothesis typically represents the effect, or result, we believe is true, and the null hypothesis represents a comparison point.
For this discussion, I would like you to come up with an informal hypothesis (“your idea”) related to any area of business and write a formal null and alternative hypothesis that represents this idea. The hypothesis can be related to, e.g., consumers, advertising claims, employee behavior, or outcomes in the manufacturing process. In your post, I would like you to first describe your idea and why you think it may be interesting, and then present your set of formal null and alternative hypotheses.
Industry Definitions and Metrics
· Industry structure/keyplayers
· Primary performance metrics
· Key trends in industry
· Include exhibits if useful, for examplegrowth in customer base
· trends in input prices of primary goods
· trends towards consolidation/globalization
· For Strategy Analysis, discuss the following:
· How does the company create value?
· What are the management intentions and plans? Are they realistic?Examples: growth, higher margins, new products, cost savings, product differentiation
· Key Success Factors (e.g., brand, patents, process, supply chain)
· Key Risk Factors (e.g., competition, ability to execute, ability to innovate)
· Is the company’s strategy sustainable?
· Include exhibits if they help illustrate a company’s strategy
Other Operational Value Drivers
Industry Definitions and Metrics Exhibit A: Major Airline Industry Players
The airlines industry focuses on providing domestic air transportation for passengers and cargo over regular routes and regular schedules. Southwest strives to differentiate itself from other air carriers by delivering exemplary customer service at a low comparative cost. Southwest operates within the low-cost airline industry. Within the domestic space, Southwest is the fourth largest airline holding 13% of the overall share of revenues for the industry1. The company’s primary competitors include Delta Air Lines Inc., American Airlines Group Inc., United Airlines Holdings Inc., and JetBlue. Including Southwest and their competitors, the domestic airline industry accounts for 66% of the industry’s revenue.
Revenues in the airline industry are driven by multiple metrics including Available Seat Miles (ASM), Revenue Passenger Miles (RPM), Revenue per Available Seat Miles (RASM), and Load Factors.
Seat miles are the number of miles a given airplane will be flying multiplied by the number of seats available for a given flight. ASM measures an airplane’s carrying capacity available to generate revenue and is measured by how many seat miles are actually available for purchase on an airline. RASM is a metric that shows how much operating revenue is generated per seat mile available for purchase. Higher RASM typically indicates that an airline is more profitable and casts them in a more positive light to investors. Airline industries drive up their operating margins by keeping RASM high and keeping Cost per Available Seat Mile (CASM) as low as possible. RPM is measured by the number of the number of miles traveled by paying passengers. Load Factors shows the correlation of RPM and ASM as a percentage indicating how effective an airline is at selling seats to passengers. Higher load factors indicate higher utilization of ASM, which directly translates to higher RASM.
The COVID-19 pandemic (the pandemic) has led to numerous new trends in the airline industry that will play out over the next few years. Many airline companies have experienced significant losses due to the pandemic and the halting of a majority of international and domestic travel caused significant decreases in the number of passengers flying2. In Southwest’s case, it experienced its first annual net loss since 1972 and a 60% decrease in operating revenue yearover-year. Major industry operators have implemented drastic cost saving strategies to remain financially viable. Southwest achieved this by cutting its ASMs by 34.2% due to the drastic decrease in demand3.
While leisure travel has rebounded somewhat since late 2020, airlines have yet to see significant growth in business travelers. This has been particularly damaging to legacy airlines such as American and United as the majority of their high-fare passengers are business travelers. Southwest is less sensitive to business travel demand as its low fares primarily target leisure travelers. Many analysts expect travel demand to rebound significantly over the next few years.
As the airline industry recovers from the extreme losses it faced in 2020, there must be a rebound in passenger traffic and RASM. The recovery of these factors is dependent on the risks currently facing the airline industry. The airline industry is also vulnerable to the current volatility of the economic and geopolitical environment. Industry wide credit ratings have decreased, making an eventual path to recovery more uncertain. Government travel regulations and consumer uncertainty were at all-time highs in the US market, completely eclipsing the effects felt after 9/11. In addition, established industry players face potential price competition from ultra-low-cost-carriers such as Spirit airlines leading to potentially decreased margins.
Even though the pandemic has slowed airline travel significantly, it is important to remember that the industry has become essential to consumers and businesses. Even though the demand is at all time low, it is only temporary. The industry will continue to innovate and grow once demand returns to pre-pandemic levels. Industry players can also gain competitive advantage by hedging against the price of jet fuel, which can decrease the volatility of their earnings. Southwest is able to do this with great success allowing the company to maintain its industry-leading profit margins.
Southwest Airlines’ business model revolves around its ability to maintain low costs, low fares, and a strong focus on the customer experience with their campaign of “transfarency.” The company has differentiated itself through a marketing effect that highlights its policy of no hidden fees. This position has allowed the airline to increase its market share and ticket sales among price sensitive customers. Southwest does not charge a cancellation or flight change fee and also doesn’t charge an additional cost to check luggage unlike most other airlines.
The company is the largest low-cost carrier globally and is able to charge competitively low fares on account of its cost structure. Southwest’s low-cost strategy revolves around its single aircraft fleet and point-to-point route structure. The volatility in price of crude oil is a large risk factor to the business’s success. Southwest has focused on minimizing fuel consumption and improving fuel efficiency through fleet moderation and other fuel initiatives. The company solely uses Boeing 737s, whereas other major airlines have a diversified fleet. This single aircraft type enables Southwest to simplify its flight scheduling, maintenance, safety management, and training activities while also spending a reduced amount of time on servicing these planes.
The company has made an effort in the past to incorporate more Boeing 737 MAX aircrafts into its fleet, which are proven to be more fuel efficient and result in saving on maintenance costs. However, in March 2019, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) forced the grounding of the MAX models due to the previous fatal crashes and overall safety issues. These grounding resulted in lower fuel efficiency for Southwest in 2019 as they had to rely on older aircraft. The FAA lifted the ban on the MAX aircraft in late 2020, and Southwest has begun slowly integrating the aircraft back into its fleet. Management announced a deal with Boeing in March to purchase 100 of Boeing’s 737 MAX-7 airplanes in order to retire more of its older 737-700 jets, which consumes more fuel. The total order with Boeing now amounts to 200 MAX-7 and 149 MAX-8 planes. This is appropriate given Southwest’s business model because of their point-to-point flight schedule and high utilization model. Management also spoke about the company’s deal with GE and CFM International for the LEAP-1B engines during the first quarter earning call for 20213. This deal will provide Southwest with 14% better fuel efficiency per plane. The company has entered into fuel derivative contracts in order to manage its risk associated with volatility in crude oil prices. The company has also created a focus on maintaining its liquidity in the event of another unforeseen issue.
Southwest also operates under a point-to-point route structure like other low-cost airlines. This allows the company to travel directly to destinations at less congested airports. Flying to these less congested airports creates cost savings for the company because it is able to pay lower gate access fees. This route structure also allows for more direct, nonstop flights at lower fares because of less air traffic. Customer experience can also benefit under this model as they can save time by avoiding long layovers since this system is less dependent on connecting flights. It also reduces travel time and risk of baggage losses and delays and reduces total fuel per passenger. Since these airports are typically less congested, it helps contribute to Southwest’s ability to achieve high asset utilization because aircrafts can be scheduled to minimize the amount of time they are on the ground.
Over the past few months, the company has set out plans to improve operations by expanding its current route network. It plans on adding new airports to the existing network and reintroducing routes that were halted because of the pandemic. In an effort to reach more business travelers and grow its share within corporate travel, the company has expanded its booking access by expanding its presence in global distribution systems (GDS). In October of 2020, it partnered with companies like Amadeus and Travelport to expand the amount of content it offers and ability to reach more business travelers, while providing a better customer experience5. GDS has been the preferred method for travel bookings among corporate travelers. Amadeus is the world’s largest GDS, and this partnership will allow corporate travels to easily book flights and other services on the platform. While there is still uncertainty regarding demand for business travel, this move will set up Southwest in a better position going forward to increase its presence in that market.
Exhibit B: Revenue Comparison and Load Factors
To get a better sense of Southwest’s strategy compared to its peers, it is interesting to see how the pandemic affected the industry. Southwest’s route network is primarily domestic and has served as a point of advantage over the other major airlines during the pandemic. These other airlines have faced significant losses on their international networks as overseas travel demand collapsed when quarantine restrictions tightened. In recent months, domestic travel has picked up, resulting in Southwest rebounding at a quicker pace. Demand in leisure travel has also seen a faster rebound than business travel, which continues to lag at this point in the pandemic. Major airlines such as American, United, and Delta have taken a bigger hit because a larger portion of their core business targets business travel due to the segment’s higher profitability. Southwest operates as a low-cost carrier that serves both market segments but has positioned itself to cater more towards leisure travel. Among the major airlines, Southwest requires the lowest load factors (72.5%) to breakeven6. On average it takes these airlines to operate at 75% capacity to breakeven due to the large variety of expenses such as wages, fuel, maintenance, and landing fees to name a few. This shows why the industry is so competitive and how difficult it is to maintain high margins.
Southwest’s low-cost model allows it to breakeven at a low load factor, which contributes to the idea that Southwest is in one of the best positions to rebound from the effects of the pandemic.
please follow instruction on the attached document.
Servicescape and Blueprint Instructions (2 Parts):
Visit a café, coffeeshop (or something similar like a small restaurant) or grocery store (added this example given our covid world) and observe the servicescape and customer behaviors.
Review Figure 2 on page 60 of Bitner’s “Servicescapes” article (see the module for the link). While at the location, observe the following five items (see the outline below for descriptions) and post your observations to the table below.
|General Information of Entity Visited|
|Servicescape||· Ambient Conditions:
|Customer Reactions and Interactions|
||· Queueing Model:
· Longest Queue:
|Pictures (Minimum of 1)||
1. General information:
· Name of establishment, location, time of day of visit.
· Single store or part of regional (e.g., Stumptown) or national (e.g., Starbucks) chain?
· Short description of customers (workers? Ages? Kids? Etc.)
2. Servicescape: note the following:
· Ambient conditions: sounds, smells, etc.
· Space/Function: layout and furnishings, etc.
· Signs, Symbols and Artifacts: décor, etc.
· Observe reactions as people come into the café and make their initial scan of the services cape.
· Observations of how customers and staff interact and/or how the servicescape affects the overall experience of the customers.
· What kind of queuing system/model is in use? (e.g., single server, single stage? Multiple stage?)
· How long was the longest queue you observed?
· What were the circumstances? (e.g., time of day, large group arrived, etc.)
· Upload at least one picture (no more than three) that portray the servicescape.
Blueprint the Servicescape you Observed – It’s ok if you upload two separate files (part 1 & 2) or if you combine them here.
See pdf file for Blueprint template.
1. Read the following story:
Bob and Mary Smith have three children: Joe 16, Jenny 13, and Melissa 9. Bob is a construction worker who stops off most days at Ernie’s tavern with his friends on the way home from work. Mary is a part-time home day-care worker. Bob’s brother Frank always has extra money that he apparently earns as a low-level numbers runner and drug dealer with the local crime organization. Mary is deeply religious and very much involved with the Baptist church.
Joe has recently begun having problems at school and now has been arrested for stealing a car. Jenny has begun staying our past curfew and came home last week with a tattoo on her stomach. Melissa gets much of Mary’s attention and focus in her ballet pursuits. In fact, Mary calls her “my little ballerina.” Finally, just yesterday Mary discovered a shoe box full of money in Bob’s part of the closet. When she asked Bob about the money, an argument ensued which culminated in Bob growing angry and striking Mary.
2. Write a paper about this family using the perspective of Differential Association. How might you use your perspective to think about this family’s situation? What types of research questions might you ask? What areas of this family’s lives might you want to investigate? How would you go about developing a research plan for this family to help you understand them from your theoretical perspective?
For example, if you were working from the perspective of Differential Association, you might want to investigate Joe and Jenny’s behavior by examining their social circles (or home lives).
3. Your paper should be no fewer than 2 pages but do your best to keep it under 3.
4. Watch your assumptions. The story lulls you into a false sense about things that have happened or are happening. Don’t fall into the trap. Only what the story directly tells you is true. Everything else is speculation. The speculation forms the basis for your investigation.
Week 3 – Healthcare technology: Local, National, and Global Considerations
Imagine that you are a public health nurse, and you and your colleagues have determined that the threat of a deadly new strain of influenza indicates a need for a mass inoculation program in your community. What public health data would have been used to determine the need for such a program? Where would you locate public health data? What data will be collected to determine the success of such a program? How might you communicate this to other communities or internationally?
This week should be fun as you are thinking like a nurse to utilize your investigative processes! What would you do if you found a new strain that could potentially be a community health problem? As you are preparing for this post, ensure to think in terms of mode of transmission, vulnerable populations, and data needed etc. Using the information obtained to provide effective and timely communication is key!
Reminder: please utilize the Q&A Forum, or email me, if you have any questions or concerns. I am looking forward to our discussions.
ATTN: after you write your discussion, you will need to comment my classmate discussion that is below.
Hello Professor & Class
What public health data would have been used to determine the need for such a program?
For us to be able to determine if mass vaccination is needed, we would need to gather data available about the new strain of influenza disease. Since we know that influenza is spread by droplet. We would have to look at the population that it is having a bigger impact, the spread of it, and how contagious. This data could be retrieved from hospitals who are reporting new cases to the health department. EHR’s can help provide accurate surveillance of the disease process without breaking HIPPA when data is reported (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018).
Where would you locate public health data?
I can locate data on the Department of Public Health across the country. In the state of Illinois, they received data from the Department of Public Health of any disease spread, and new cases of disease increase. They gather this from the hospitals because they are required to report this information. To surveillance this data in a timely manner and precise way we would have to look at different options. I research as to how they monitor the COVID-19 pandemic and I found out there is two techniques (CDC, 2021). One of them is called the aggregate count where the team divides into 2 groups. The first team collects information from jurisdictions website, which are credible websites. Then passed it on the team 2 for verification of information and sends it over to jurisdictions to confirmed accuracy and make corrections if need it and published it to the website. The second method is called the line-level data. A more detailed approach and is the second part to determine mass inoculation. They gather more information about the individuals that have died such as race, age, and ethnicity (CDC, 2021). They can note who is most at risk and mass inoculation is appropriate and who is it appropriate for.
What data will be collected to determine the success of such a program?
A way to collect the success of the program would be referring to the CDC once again, since the inoculation has been provided, they continue to aggregate count. We should be able to see the number of cases and deaths declining, which then would mean the effectiveness.
How might you communicate this to other communities or internationally?
We can communicate information to the locally and nationally by the news outlet, social media, radio. We can also print information into newspaper for individuals who do not own technology devices.
Center of Disease Control and Prevention (2021). “What is Case Surveillance” retrieved from
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2018). Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge (4th ed.) [E-book]. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
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